The influence of Omega-3 enriched edible eggs on the performances of layers

(Second laying season 500-800 days)
August 27, 2015
The influence of Omega-3 enriched edible eggs on the performances of layers (Enlarge)

Research participants:Navot Haklay, Ilan Aryeh, Poultry Division at SHAHAM
Yossi Sofer, Moshav Sitria

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS:
- Shmuel Bernheim from Kibbutz Alonim for supplying the additive for the research project;

- Gderot feed-mills for preparing the feed mill;

- Dr. Niva Shapira and Amatzia Eyal for their advice;

- To the SHAHAM Research Fund for financing the research work.

Sources of Omega -3 in Poultry Feed

- Linolenic acid - Flax seeds (18:3) makes up 50%;
  Problematic feed factors: Mucilage, Trypsin Inhibitor,Cyanogenic, Glycosises, Phytic Acid.

- Extruded flax-seeds with the addition of bran (Nutex, Valomega).

- Vegetable oil made from the seeds of Salvia Sclarea
  (Common names: Clary or Europe Sage).

Flax oil: There are two principal types of this oil:

1. chemically extracted industrial oil for industrial purposes.
2. Cold-pressed flax oil, intended for animal feed.

- Dried seaweed or algae, Schizochytrium
- Fish oil : produced from fish belonging to the Clupeidae family that is called Menhaden oil.

 
Omega 3 Very Fatty Compound Acids, Unsaturated From 3 groups:
1. α – Linolenic acid – 18:3 also known as ALA
2. Eicosapentaenoic acid – 20:5, also known as EPA;
3. Docosahexaenoic acid – 22:6, also known as DHA.

 

 

 

Omega 3 offers many benefits for the health of human beings and these include:

  • Lower triglycerides' levels in the blood system, leading to a reduction in the risk of coronary heart disease.
  • Reduces the risk of cancer (a connection was found to a reduction in the incidence of
    breast cancer, colon cancer and prostate cancer).
  • Combats inflammation and alleviates the symptoms of arthritis, hardening of the arteries (artherosclerosis) and chronic inflammation.
  • Has a stimulating affect and serves as an anti-depressant.
  • Improves the capability for attentiveness and concentration, especially among children.
  • Assists in brain development in foetuses and in children up to the age of 3-4.

The Acceptable Omega 3 Content in an Egg per 100 Grams.
(Ministry of Agriculture Standard)

The Israel Ministry of Agriculture has set a standard for Omega 3 content in eggs per 100 grams and this accepted Omega 3 content is 600 mg. including ALA, DHA, EPA, where at least 80 mg out of them is DHA+EPA. However, alternatively, at least 110 mg of DHA+EPA is also acceptable. The ratio between Omega 6 and Omega 3 is also significant, as doctors and dieticians recommend a ratio of less than 4:1.

 

 

Experiment Initial Data

2 lines X 12 repetitions X 36 hens = 864 hens

From two genetic lines (Hy-Line and Lohmann)

12 repetitions for each genetic line

36 hens in each repetition

Hatching date: July 11th 2012.

Feed:

Contents of Feed Mill Used in the Experiment

 

Experimental mill feed

Control

Metabolic Energy (Kcal/Kg)

2750

2750

Protein (%)

17.5

17.5

Calcium (%)

3.8

3.8

Total Phosphorous (%)

0.6

0.6

Sodium (%)

0.18

0.18

Cellulose (%)

3.9

3.9

Fat (%)

4.5

3.7

Ash (%)

12.4

12.4

 

Hy-Line and Lohmann, First Laying Season

1a. Laying hen performance combined averages for Hyline and Lohmann

 

Control

n-3 enriched

Health

Death (%)

3.8

6.2

Food intake

Feed consumption/day (g)

109.8

108.6

Feed consumption/egg (g)

132.6

131.6

Egg production

Egg/Hen Housed

316

312

Egg/Hen Day total

321

321

Egg weight (g)

63.6

63.3

Egg mass/day (g)

52.6

52.3

Egg mass/Hen (kg)

20.9

19.78

Egg mass/Hen Day (kg)

20.43

20.28

Egg failure

Breakage (%)

0.78

0.63

Shell less egg (%)

0.20

0.18

Dirty eggs (%)

4.62

3.98

Blood spots (%)

0.52

0.49

* p<0.05 (two-tailed t-test analysis)

Hy-Line and Lohmann, Second Laying Season (500-800 Days of Life) 

Treatment/Index

Omega

Control

Significance

Mortality (%)

6.0

7.7

Not significant

Number of eggs per hen housed

192.8

191.8

Not significant

Actual number of eggs

212.4

209.7

Not significant

Laying rate (%)

81.4

83

Not significant

Average Egg Weight (grams)

71.2

72

0.0568

Daily egg mass (Grams)

57.9

57.8

Not significant

Total egg mass per hen housed (Kg)

13.73

13.81

Not significant

Total actual egg mass (Kg)

15.09

15.12

Not significant

Breakage (%)

2.79

3.23

Not significant

Daily feed consumption (grams)

119.4

119.5

Not significant

Feed consumption per egg (grams)

147.8

149.3

Not significant

Feed Efficiency

2.08

2.0

Not significant

Shell Less Eggs (%)

0.72

0.67

Not significant

Soiled eggs (%)

6.14

6.93

Not significant

Eggs with blood spots (%)

0.84

0.54

Not significant

 

Quantity of Omega 3 Fatty Acids in Feed Treatments

And from 3 Different Egg Sources

(Mg. per 100 grams of eggs) at 7 Months of Age

Feed additive 5% (Sitria chicken coop)

Control (Sitria chicken coop)

Eggs source no.1

Eggs source no.2

Eggs source no.3

 

307.3

108.8

391.2

377.3

720.8

 

273.4

101.4

398.8

265.4

796.2

 

313.7

 

435.5

309.6

695.4

 

298.1

105.1

 

317.4

737.5

Average

The Ratio of Omega 6 to Omega 3 according to

Feed Treatments and from 3 Different Egg Sources

At 7 Months of Age

Food additive 5% (Sitria chicken coop)

Control (Sitria chicken coop)

Eggs source no.1

Eggs source no.2

Eggs source no.3

 

4.4

9.8

5.6

5.7

3.3

 

4.4

12.5

5.4

7.0

3.0

 

4.0

 

5.0

7.1

3.5

 

4.3

11.2

5.3

6.6

3.3

Average

Quantity of Omega 3 Fatty Acids EPA+DHA

(Mg per 100 grams of eggs)

Ministry of Agriculture Standard 110 mg per 100 grams of eggs

Food additive 5% (Sitria chicken coop)

Control (Sitria chicken coop)

Eggs source no.1

Eggs source no.2

Eggs source no.3

 

120

54

170

134

158

 

108

53

163

108

193

 

119

 

188

114

162

 

115

53

174

119

171

Average

 

Testing the Profile of the Fatty Acids in the Egg, with the Addition of Omega 3 in the Feed Compared To the Control Batch in the two genetic lines
at the Age of 21 Months (average) 

ALA (mg per 100 grams of eggs)

Ratio of Omega 6 to 3

EPA+DHA (mg per 100 grams of eggs)

Omega 3 (mg per 100 grams of eggs)

Feed treatment

Genetic line

148.94

5.6

100.12

269.3

Omega

Lohmann

35.16

18.6

54.18

104.5

Control

Lohmann

222.45

5.1

127.82

384.8

Omega

Hy-Line

 

Testing the Profile of the Fatty Acids in the Egg, with the Addition of Omega 3 in the Feed Compare To the Control Batch at the Age of 21 Months

(In the two genetic lines together)

Feed treatment

Omega 3 (mg per 100 grams of eggs)

EPA+DHA (mg per 100 grams of eggs

ALA (mg per 100 grams of eggs

Ratio of Omega 6 to 3

Addition of Omega 3 in the feed

327.1a***

113.9a***

181.7a***

5.4a

Control

111.3b***

51.0b***

41.1b***

17.2b

***Level of significance p0.05 , ***Level of significance 0.5{p{0.01, ***Level of significance p{0.01

 

 

Testing the Profile of the Fatty Acids in the Egg, with the Addition of Omega 3 in the Feed at the Age of 21 Months

According to the two genetic lines

Feed treatment

Omega 3 (mg per 100 grams of eggs)

EPA+DHA (mg per 100 grams of eggs)

ALA (mg per 100 grams of eggs)

Ratio of Omega 6 to 3

Hy-Line

348.8a***

127.8a***

222.4a***

5.08a***

Lohmann

269.3b***

100.1b***

148.9b***

5.65b***

***Level of significance p{0.05 , ***Level of significance 0.5{p{0.01, ***Level of significance p{0.01

  

Testing Feed Mill from among the Experimental Feed Mills

And the Control

Experimental feed mill

Control feed mill

Index

6.63

4.37

Fat (Grams per 100 Grams)

1.36

0.96

Saturated fat (grams per 100 grams)

1.804

1.269

Mono –Unsaturated fat ( gram /100gram)

3.465

2.142

Poly – Unsaturated fat (gram /100gram)

773.2

101.6

Omega 3 (grams per 100 grams)

2692

2040

Omega 6 (grams per 100 grams)

3.5

20.1

Ratio Omega 6 to 3

765.3

98.6

ALA

2.51

 

EPA

   

DHA

   

Formula for Calculating Haugh Units

H = Protein Level in Millimeters

G = Gravitation Constant

W = Egg weight

 

Haugh Units at Different Ages for Two Genetic Lines

Significance

Lohmann (Control)

Lohmann (Feed Additive 5%)

Hy-Line (Control)

Hy-Line (Feed Additive 5%)

Haugh units

Not significant

75

76

80

81

Aged 9 months

Not significant

73

75

74

75

Age 16 months

 

Body Weights (Kg) at Difference Ages and with Various Feed Treatments along Two Genetic Lines.

Significance

Control

Omega treatment

Age (weeks)

Not significant

1.025

1.017

15

Not significant

1.662

1.684

43

 

1.756

1.785

72

Level of significance p{0.05 , Level of significance 0.5{p{0.01, Level of significance p{0.01

 

Summary and Conclusions 

  • The performance of the layers in the two genetic lines with the addition of Valomega at a rate of 5% per mill was identical to those of the standard feed (Control)
  • Laboratory results clearly showed an increase in the Omega 3 level, in eggs taken at age 7 months from hens fed with a mill enriched with Omega 3, compared to the standard mill (298 mg of Omega 3 in 100 grams of eggs and 105 respectively).
  • The ratio of Omega 6 to Omega 3 was lower (4.3) at age 7 months in eggs taken from hens fed with a mill enriched with Omega 3, compared to eggs taken from hens fed with the standard mill (11.2).
  • The EPA and DHA levels were higher (115.4) at age 7 months in eggs taken from hens fed with a mill enriched with Omega 3, compared to eggs taken from hens fed with the standard mill (53.6).
  • Laboratory tests clearly showed a statistically significant increase in the Omega 3 level, in eggs taken at age 21 months from hens fed with a mill enriched with Omega 3, compared to the standard mill (327 mg of Omega 3 in 100 grams of eggs and 111 respectively).The ratio of Omega 6 to Omega 3 was lower and statistically significantly so (5.4) at age 21 months in eggs taken from hens fed with a mill enriched with Omega 3, compared to eggs taken from hens fed with a standard mill (17.2).
  • The EPA and DHA levels were higher and statistically significantly so at age 21 months in eggs taken from hens fed with a mill enriched with Omega 3 (113. 9), compared to eggs taken from hens fed with the standard mill (51.0).
  • ALA levels were higher and statistically significantly so at age 21 months in eggs taken from hens fed with a mill enriched with Omega 3 (185.7), compared to eggs taken from hens fed with the standard mill (41.1).

Differences were found in the genetic lines, which were fed with a feed mill containing the food additive on levels of Omega 3 fatty acids.

  • In the Hy-Line line a higher level was observed than the level in the Lohmann line (385 compared to 269)
  • The ratio of Omega 6 to 3 was lower in eggs laid by layers of the Hy-Line line 5.1 compared to 5.6 in the Lohmann line.
  • The EPA and DHA levels were higher in eggs laid by layers of the Hy-Line line 127.8 compared to 100.1 in the Lohmann line.
  • The quality of the eggs' content (Haugh units) was similar in eggs taken from hens fed with a mill enriched with Omega 3, compared to eggs taken from hens fed with the standard mill, in the two genetic lines, but a tendency towards a slight improvement in this index was observed in eggs enriched with Omega 3.

The body weight in the two genetic lines was similar in hens, which were fed with an additive compared to hens receiving the commercial mill at the three ages of 105, 300 and 500 days. A significant difference was observed between the genetic lines at the two stages of 105 and 300 days when the Lohmann line was significantly heavier than the Hy-Line line.

 

* Navot Haklay navoth@gmail.com 

 

 

 

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